|In all of these creatine responses, I have not read a single one that talks about the different sources of creatine (where does the raw material come from). About 80% of the market is flooded with impure creatine (mainly from China). In fact, there is only one manufacturer of creatine in the US (and the world) that registers its production of creatine with the FDA with a drug master file.
My advice to you is to research whatever company you are intending to purchase from, and find out where they get their creatine. If it does not come out of Pfanstiehl in Waukegan, Illinois then I would not even touch it. Don't make the mistake of assuming that if you purchase creatine at GNC or any "name brand" that the creatine is not imported. Many large companies buy the cheap stuff. Please do your homework.
Also, what amazes me about many creatine responses throughout this section is the continuous remark that "creatine has not been studied" or "creatine is a new 'drug' and we don't know enough about it. Creatine is, by far, the most studied sports supplement...nothing else even comes close.
Below is a list of 76 published studies about creatine. These studies were conducted at major universities throughout the world, NOT funded by any creatine company. And in case anyone was wondering...NOT ONE of these studies suggest any negative side effects. You will also notice the first reference is from 1926, so saying that creatine is 'new' is not even remotely accurate. Let us not also forget that synthetic production of creatine began in 1961.
1. Chanutin A. The fate of creatine when administered to man., I Biol Chem 1926;67:29-41.
2. Hultman E, Bergstrom J, Sprier L, Stderlund K. Energy metabolism and fatigue. In: Taylor A, Gollnick P, Green H, editors. Biochemistry of Exercise VII. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1990:73-92.
3. Balsom P, Stderlund K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special references to creatine supplementation. Sports Med 1994; 18:268-80.
4. Greenhaft P, Bodin K, Harris R, Hultman E, Jones D, McIntyre D et al. The influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense contraction in man. J Physiol 1993;467:75P.
5. Harris R, Sfderlund K, Hullman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci 1992;83:367-74.
6. Tullson P, Rundell K, Sabina R, Terjung R. Creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid alters skeletal muscle AMP deaminase activity. Am J Physiol 1996;270:C76-85.
7. Kreider R. Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and body composition. Str Cond 1995;Oct:72-3.
8. Balsom P, Stdefiund K, Sjfdin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol Scand 1995; 1154:303-10.
9. Febbraio M, Flanagan T, Snow 1L Zhao S, Carey M. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1995; 155:387-95.
10. Green A, Sewell D, Simpson L, Hulman E, Macdonald I, Greenhaft P. Creatine ingestion augments muscle creatine uptake and glycogen synthesis during carbohydrate feeding in man. J Physiol 1996;491:63.
11. Green A, Simpson E, Littlewood J, Macdonald I, Greenhaft P. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feedings in humans. Acta £hysiol Scand 1996; 158:195-202.
12. Greenhaft P, Bodin K, Stderlund K, Hultman E. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis. Am 3Physiol 1994;266:E725-30.
13. Hullman E, Stderlund K, Timmons J, Cederblad G, Greenhaft P. Muscle creatine loading in man. J Appi Physiol 1996;81:232-7.
14. Kurosawa Y, Iwane H, Hammica T, Shimomitsu T, Katsumura T, Sako T et al. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on high-and low-intensity grip exercise performance. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S251.
15. Lemon P, Boska M, Bredle D, Rogers M, Ziegenfuss T, Newcomer B. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on energetic during repeated maximal muscle contraction. Med Sci Sport Exerc1995 ;27 :S204.
16. Ruden T, Parcell A, Ray M, Moss K, Scmlet J, Sharp R et al. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1996;28:S81.
17. Vandenberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, Van Hecke P, Vanstapet F, Hespel P. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. JAppl Physiol 1996;80:452-7.
18. Vanderberghe, K., Goris M., Van Hecke P., Van Leeputte M., Vangerven L., Hespel P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance-training..Y Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63.
19. Casey A, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell D, Hultman E, Greenhaft P. Creatine ingestion favorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximal exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E31-7.
20. Becque B, Lochmann J, Melrose D. Effect of creatine supplementation during strength training on 1 RM and body composition. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S 146.
21. Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaft P. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. Eur JAppl P hysiol1994 ;69:268- 70.
22. Earnest C, Snell P, Rodriguez R, Almada A, Mitchell T. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand 1995; 153:207-9.
23. GreenhaffP, Casey A, Short A, Harris R, Sfderlund K, Hultman E. Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci 1993;84:565-71.
24. Stout J, Eckerson J, Noonan D, Moore G, Cullen D. The effects of a supplement designed to augment creatine uptake on exercise performance and fatfree mass in football players. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S251.
25. Volek J, Kraemer W, Bush J, Boetes M, Incledon T, Clark K, Lynch J. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. JAm Diet Assoc 1997;97:765-70.
26. Goldberg P, Bechtel P. Effects of Iow dose ereatine supplementation on strength, speed and power by male athletes. Med Sci Sport Exerc1997 ;29:S251.
27. Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, Kovacs I, Gobossy A, ColIi R et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int J Sports Med 1997; 18~369-72.
28. Almada A, Kreider R, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, et al. Effects of calcium -HMB supplementation with or without creatine during training on strength and sprint capacity. FASEB d 1997; 11 :A374.
29. Hamilton-Ward K, Meyers M, Skelly W, Marley IL, Saunders J. Effect of ereatine supplementation on upper extremity anaerobic response in females. Med Sci Sport Exerc1997 ;29: S 146.
30. Johnson K, Smodic B, Hill R. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscular power and work. bled Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S251.
31. Kreider R, Ferreira M, Wilson M, GriMstaff P, Plisk S, Reinhardy J et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength and sprint performance, bled Sci Sport Exerc1998;30: 73-82.
32. Grindstaff P, Kreider R, Bishop R, Wilson M, Wood L, Alexander C et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers.Int J Sport Nutr 1997;7:330-46.
33. Prevost M, Nelson A, Morris G. The effects of creatine supplementation on total work output and metabolism during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:233-40.
34. Ziegenfuss T, Lemon P, Rogers M, Ross R, Yarasheski K. Acute creatine ingestion: effects on muscle volume, anaerobic power, fluid volumes, and protein turnover, bled Sci Sports Exerc1997;29:S127.
35. Balsom P, Harridge S, Stderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Creatine supplementation per se does not enhance endurance exercise performance. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 149:521-3.
36. Dawson B, Cutler M, Moody A, Lawrence S, Goodman C, Randall N. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61.
37. Ferreira M, Kreider R, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinhardy J et al. Effects of ingesting a supplement designed to enhance creatine uptake on strength and sprint capacity. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S 146.
38. Harris R, Vim M, Greenhaft P, Hultman E. The effect of omi creatine supplementation on running performance during maximal short term exercise in man. d ghysioI 1993; 467: 74P.
39. Kirksey K, Warren B, Stone M, Stone M, Johnson R. The effects of six weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation in male and female track athletes. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S145.
40. Leenders N, Lesniewski L, Sherman W, Sand G, Sand S, Mulroy M, Lamb D. Dietary creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Overtraining and Overreaching in Sport Conference Abstracts. 1996; 1:80.
41. Earnest C, Stephens D, Smith J, Creatine ingestion effects time to exhaustion during estimation of the work rate-time relationship, bled Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S285.
42. Rossiter H, Cannell E, Jakeman P. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on the 1000m performance of competitive rowers. J Sports Sci 1996; 14:175-9,
43. Earnest C, Aimada A, Mitchell T. Effects ofcreatine monohydrate ingestion on intermediate duration anaerobic treadmill running to exhaustion, d Str Cond Res 1997; I 1:234-8.
44. Nelson A, Day R, Glickman-Weiss E, Hegstad M, Sampson B. Cmafine supplementation raises anaerobic threshold. FASEBJ 1997;11:A589.
45. Jacobs I, Bleue S, Goodman J. Creatine ingestion increases anaerobic capacity and maximum accumulated oxygen deficit. Can JAppl Physiol 1997;22:231-43.
46. Myburgh K, Bold A, Bellinger B, Wilson G, Noakes T. Creatine supplementation and sprint training in cyclists: metabolic and performance effects. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc 1996;28:S81.
47. Balsom P, Ekblom B, Sjodin B, Hultman E. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand J bled Sci Sport1993 ;3:143-9.
48. Thompson C, Kemp G, Sanderson A, Dixon R, Styles P, Taylor D et al. Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers. Br JSports Med1996;30:222-5.
49. Odland L, MacDougall J, Tarnopolsky M, Elorriage A, Borgmann A, Atkinson S. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine and power output during a short-term maximal cycling task. bled Sci Sport Exerc 1994;26:S23.
50. Burke L, Pyne D, Telford R. Effect of Oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int d Sport Nutr1996;6:222-33.
51. Cooke W, Grandjean P, Barnes W. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergomerry. JAppl Physiol1995;78:670-3.
52. Mujika I, Chatard J, Lacoste L, Barale F, Geyssant A. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers, bled Sci Sport Exerc 1996;28:1435-41.
53. Redondo D, Dowling E, Graham B, Almada A, Williams M. The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on running velocity. Int d Sport Nutr 1996;6:213-21.
54, Barnett C, Hinds M, Jenkins D. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycle performance. Aust J Sci Med. Sport 1996;28:35-9.
55. Terrilion K, Kolkhorst F, Dolgener F, Joslyn S. The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal nmning bouts. Iht d Sport Nutr1997;7:138-43.
56. Godly A, Yates J. Effects of creafine supplementation on endurance cycling combined with short, high-intensity bouts, bled Sci Sport Exerc1997 ;29:S251.
57. Stroud M, Holliman D, Bell D, Green A, MacDonald I, Greenhaft P. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate accumulation during steadystate incremental treadmill exercise and recovery in man. Clin Sci 1994;87:707-10.
58. Kreider R, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaft P, Plisk S, Reinhardy J et al. Effects of ingesting a supplement designed to enhance creatine uptake on body composition during training. bled Sci Sport Exerc 1997;29:S 145.
59. Kreider R, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinhardy J et al. Effects of calcium-HMB supplementation with or without creatine during training on strength and sprint capacity. FASEB J 1997;11 :A374.
60. Paulelto P, Stmmia E. Clinical experience with creatine phosphate therapy. In Conway M and Clark J. editors. Creatine and Creatine Phosphate: Scientific and Clinical Perspectives. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1996:185-98.
61. Bessman S, Savabi F. The role of the phosphocreatine energy shuttle in exercise and muscle hypertrophy. In: Taylor A, Gollnick P, Green H editors. International Series on Sport Sciences: Biochemistry of Exercise VII:Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988:167-78.
62. Ingwall J. Creatine and the control of muscle-specific protein synthesis in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Circ Res 1976;38:Ill 5-23.
63. Kreider R, Grindstaff P, Wood L, Bullen D, Klesges R, Lotz D, et al. Effects of ingesting a lean mass promoting supplement during resistance training on isokinetic performance. Med Sci Sport Exerc 1996;28:S36.
64. Kreider R, Kiesges R, Harmon K, Grindstaff P, Ramsey L, Bullen D et al. Effects of ingesting supplements designed to promote lean tissue accretion on body composition during resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr1996;6:234-46.
65. Kreider IL Ferreira M, Wilson M, Almada A. Effects of creatine supplementation with and without glucose on body composition in trained and untrained men and women. JStr Cond Res 1997;11:283
66. Clark J, Odoom J, Tracey I, Dunn J, Boehm E, Paternostro G et al. Experimental observations of creatine and creatine phosphate metabolism. In Conway M, Clark J editors. Creatine and Creatine Phosphate: Scientific and Clinical Perspectives. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1996:33-50.
67. Sipila I, Rapola J, Simell O, Vannas A. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. New Eng d Med 1981 ;304:867-70.
68. Almada A, Mitchell T, Earnest C. Impact of chronic creatine supplementation on serum enzyme concentrations. FASEB J 1996; 10:A4567.
69. Earnest C, Almada A, Mitchell T. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci 1996;91: I 13-18.
70. Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaft P, Gardiner S, Randall M, March J, Bennett T. Attenuation by creatine of myocardial metabolic stress in Brattleboro rats caused by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Br J Pharmacol 1995;116:3288-92.
71. Conway M, Clark J editors. Creatine and Creatine Phosphate: Scientific and Clinical Perspectives. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1996.
72. SaksV, Stepanov V, Jaliashvili I, Konerev E, Kryzkanovsky S, Strumia E. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of action for cardioprotective and therapeutic role of creatine phosphate. In Conway M, Clark J editors. Creatine and Creatine Phosphate: Scientific and Clinical Perspectives. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1996:91-114.
73. Wakatsuki T, Ohira Y, Nakamura K, Asakura T, Ohno H, Yamamoto M. Changes of contractile properties of extensor digitorum longus in response to creatine-analogue administration and/or hindlimb suspension in rats. Jpn ,IPhysiol1995;45:979-89.
74. Wakatsuki T, Ohim Y, Yasui W, Nakamura K, Asakura T, Ohno H, Yamamoto M. Responses of contractile properties in rat soleus to highenergy phosphates and/or unloading. Jpn J Physiol 1994;44:193-204.
75. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, Kristgansson S, Roll C, Nyquist O et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res1995 ;30: 413-18.
76. Poortmans J, Auquier H, Renaut V, Durassel A, Saugy M, Bdsson G. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men. Eur JAppi Physiol 1997;76:566-7.
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